Atomic Facts & Figures

Zirconium Facts

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zirconium
Zirconium
40Zr
Appearance
silvery white
General properties
Name, symbol, number zirconium, Zr, 40
Pronunciation /zərˈkniəm/ zər-koh-ni-əm
Metallic category transition metal
Group, period,block 4, 5, d
Standard atomic weight 91.224
Electron configuration [Kr] 5s2 4d2
2, 8, 18, 10, 2
Electron shells of zirconium (2, 8, 18, 10, 2)
History
Discovery Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1789)
First isolation <öns Jakob Berzelius">Jöns Jakob Berzelius (1824)
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (nearr.t.) 6.52 g·cm−3
Liquid density atm.p. 5.8 g·cm−3
Melting point 2128 K, 1855 °C, 3371 °F
Boiling point 4682 K, 4409 °C, 7968 °F
Heat of fusion 14 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 573 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 25.36 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2639 2891 3197 3575 4053 4678
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4, 3, 2, 1[1]
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity 1.33 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 640.1 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1270 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2218 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 160 pm
Covalent radius 175±7 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure hexagonal close-packed
Zirconium has a hexagonal close-packed crystal structure
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic[2]
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 421 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity 22.6 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 5.7 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound(thin rod) (20 °C) 3800 m·s−1
Young's modulus 88 GPa
Shear modulus 33 GPa
Bulk modulus 91.1 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.34
Mohs hardness 5.0
Vickers hardness 903 MPa
Brinell hardness 650 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-67-7
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of zirconium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
88Zr syn 83.4 d ε - 88Y
γ 0.392D -
89Zr syn 78.4 h ε - 89Y
β+ 0.902 89Y
γ 0.909D -
90Zr 51.45% 90Zr is stable with 50 neutrons
91Zr 11.22% 91Zr is stable with 51 neutrons
92Zr 17.15% 92Zr is stable with 52 neutrons
93Zr trace 1.53×106 y β− 0.060 93Nb
94Zr 17.38% >1.1×1017 y β−β− 1.144 94Mo
96Zr 2.8% 2.0×1019 y[3] β−β− 3.348 96Mo

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